Nmap ("Network Mapper") is an open source tool for network exploration and security auditing. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, although it works fine against single hosts. Nmap uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. While Nmap is commonly used for security audits, many systems and network administrators find it useful for routine tasks such as network inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime.
The output from Nmap is a list of scanned targets, with supplemental information on each depending on the options used. Key among that information is the "interesting ports table". That table lists the port number and protocol, service name, and state. The state is either open, filtered, closed, or unfiltered. Open. means that an application on the target machine is listening for connections/packets on that port. Filtered. means that a firewall, filter, or other network obstacle is blocking the port so that Nmap cannot tell whether it is open or closed. Closed. ports have no application listening on them, though they could open up at any time. Ports are classified as unfiltered. when they are responsive to Nmap's probes, but Nmap cannot determine whether they are open or closed. Nmap reports the state combinations open|filtered. and closed|filtered. when it cannot determine which of the two states describe a port. The port table may also include software version details when version detection has been requested. When an IP protocol scan is requested (-sO), Nmap provides information on supported IP protocols rather than listening ports.
In addition to the interesting ports table, Nmap can provide further information on targets, including reverse DNS names, operating system guesses, device types, and MAC addresses.
- Flexible: Supports dozens of advanced techniques for mapping out networks filled with IP filters, firewalls, routers, and other obstacles. This includes many port scanning mechanisms (both TCP & UDP), OS detection, version detection, ping sweeps, and more. See the documentation page.
- Powerful: Nmap has been used to scan huge networks of literally hundreds of thousands of machines.
- Portable: Most operating systems are supported, including Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, IRIX, Mac OS X, HP-UX, NetBSD, Sun OS, Amiga, and more.
- Easy: While Nmap offers a rich set of advanced features for power users, you can start out as simply as "nmap -v -A targethost". Both traditional command line and graphical (GUI) versions are available to suit your preference. Binaries are available for those who do not wish to compile Nmap from source.
- Free: The primary goals of the Nmap Project is to help make the Internet a little more secure and to provide administrators/auditors/hackers with an advanced tool for exploring their networks. Nmap is available for free download, and also comes with full source code that you may modify and redistribute under the terms of the license.
- Well Documented: Significant effort has been put into comprehensive and up-to-date man pages, whitepapers, tutorials, and even a whole book!
- Supported: While Nmap comes with no warranty, it is well supported by a vibrant community of developers and users. Most of this interaction occurs on the Nmap mailing lists. Most bug reports and questions should be sent to the nmap-dev list, but only after you read the guidelines. We recommend that all users subscribe to the low-traffic nmap-hackers announcement list. You can also find Nmap on Facebook and Twitter. For real-time chat, join the #nmap channel on Freenode or EFNet.
- Acclaimed: Nmap has won numerous awards, including "Information Security Product of the Year" by Linux Journal, Info World and Codetalker Digest. It has been featured in hundreds of magazine articles, several movies, dozens of books, and one comic book series.
- Popular: Thousands of people download Nmap every day, and it is included with many operating systems (Redhat Linux, Debian Linux, Gentoo, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, etc). It is among the top ten (out of 30,000) programs at the Freshmeat.
Nmap features include
- Host discovery – Identifying hosts on a network. For example, listing the hosts that respond to TCP and/or ICMP requests or have a particular port open.
- Port scanning – Enumerating the open ports on target hosts.
- Version detection – Interrogating network services on remote devices to determine application name and version number.
- OS detection – Determining the operating system and hardware characteristics of network devices.
- Scriptable interaction with the target – using Nmap Scripting Engine (NSE) and Lua programming language.
Nmap can provide further information on targets, including reverse DNS names, device types, and MAC addresses.
Typical uses of Nmap
- Auditing the security of a device or firewall by identifying the network connections which can be made to, or through it.
- Identifying open ports on a target host in preparation for auditing
- Network inventory, network mapping, maintenance and asset management.
- Auditing the security of a network by identifying new servers.
- Generating traffic to hosts on a network, response analysis and response time measurement.
- Finding and exploiting vulnerabilities in a network.
SCAN A SINGLE HOST OR AN IP ADDRESS
# Scan a single ip address nmap 192.168.1.1 # Scan a host name nmap server1.neoslab.com # Scan a host name with more info nmap -v server1.neoslab.com
SCAN MULTIPLE IP ADDRESS OR SUBNET
nmap 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3 # Works with same subnet i.e. 192.168.1.0/24 nmap 192.168.1.1,2,3
You can scan a range of IP address too:
You can scan a range of IP address using a wildcard:
Finally, you scan an entire subnet:
READ LIST OF HOSTS/NETWORKS FROM FILE
The -iL option allows you to read the list of target systems using a text file. This is useful to scan a large number of hosts/networks. Create a text file as follows:
cat > /tmp/test.txt
server1.neoslab.com 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.1.1/24 10.1.2.3 localhost
nmap -iL /tmp/test.txt
When scanning a large number of hosts/networks you can exclude hosts from a scan:
nmap 192.168.1.0/24 --exclude 192.168.1.5 nmap 192.168.1.0/24 --exclude 192.168.1.5,192.168.1.254
OR exclude list from a file called /tmp/exclude.txt
nmap -iL /tmp/scanlist.txt --excludefile /tmp/exclude.txt
TURN ON OS AND VERSION DETECTION SCANNING SCRIPT
nmap -A 192.168.1.254 nmap -v -A 192.168.1.1 nmap -A -iL /tmp/scanlist.txt
FIND OUT IF A HOST/NETWORK IS PROTECTED BY A FIREWALL
nmap -sA 192.168.1.254 nmap -sA server1.neoslab.com
SCAN A HOST WHEN PROTECTED BY THE FIREWALL
nmap -PN 192.168.1.1 nmap -PN server1.neoslab.com
SCAN AN IPV6 HOST/ADDRESS
The -6 option enable IPv6 scanning. The syntax is:
nmap -6 server1.neoslab.com nmap -6 2607:f0d0:1002:51::4 nmap -v A -6 2607:f0d0:1002:51::4
SCAN A NETWORK AND FIND OUT WHICH SERVERS AND DEVICES ARE UP AND RUNNING
This is known as host discovery or ping scan:
nmap -sP 192.168.1.0/24
Host 192.168.1.1 is up (0.00035s latency). MAC Address: BC:AE:C5:C3:16:93 (Unknown) Host 192.168.1.2 is up (0.0038s latency). MAC Address: 74:44:01:40:57:FB (Unknown) Host 192.168.1.5 is up. Host nas03 (192.168.1.12) is up (0.0091s latency). MAC Address: 00:11:32:11:15:FC (Synology Incorporated) Nmap done: 256 IP addresses (4 hosts up) scanned in 2.80 second
HOW DO I PERFORM A FAST SCAN?
nmap -F 192.168.1.1
DISPLAY THE REASON A PORT IS IN A PARTICULAR STATE
nmap --reason 192.168.1.1 nmap --reason server1.neoslab.com
ONLY SHOW OPEN (OR POSSIBLY OPEN) PORTS
nmap --open 192.168.1.1 nmap --open server1.neoslab.com
SHOW ALL PACKETS SENT AND RECEIVED
nmap --packet-trace 192.168.1.1 nmap --packet-trace server1.neoslab.com
SHOW HOST INTERFACES AND ROUTES
This is useful for debugging (ip command or route command or netstat command like output using nmap)
nmap -F 192.168.1.1
Starting Nmap 5.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-11-27 02:01 IST ************************INTERFACES************************ DEV (SHORT) IP/MASK TYPE UP MAC lo (lo) 127.0.0.1/8 loopback up eth0 (eth0) 192.168.1.5/24 ethernet up B8:AC:6F:65:31:E5 vmnet1 (vmnet1) 192.168.121.1/24 ethernet up 00:50:56:C0:00:01 vmnet8 (vmnet8) 192.168.179.1/24 ethernet up 00:50:56:C0:00:08 ppp0 (ppp0) 10.1.19.69/32 point2point up **************************ROUTES************************** DST/MASK DEV GATEWAY 10.0.31.178/32 ppp0 18.104.22.168/32 eth0 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.0/0 eth0 192.168.121.0/0 vmnet1 192.168.179.0/0 vmnet8 169.254.0.0/0 eth0 10.0.0.0/0 ppp0 0.0.0.0/0 eth0 192.168.1.2
HOW DO I SCAN SPECIFIC PORTS?
nmap -p [port] hostName # Scan port 80 nmap -p 80 192.168.1.1 # Scan TCP port 80 nmap -p T:80 192.168.1.1 # Scan UDP port 53 nmap -p U:53 192.168.1.1 # Scan two ports nmap -p 80,443 192.168.1.1 # Scan port ranges nmap -p 80-200 192.168.1.1 # Combine all options nmap -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080 192.168.1.1 nmap -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080 server1.neoslab.com nmap -v -sU -sT -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080 192.168.1.254 # Scan all ports with * wildcard nmap -p "*" 192.168.1.1 # Scan top ports i.e. scan $number most common ports nmap --top-ports 5 192.168.1.1 nmap --top-ports 10 192.168.1.1
Starting Nmap 5.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-11-27 01:23 IST Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1: PORT STATE SERVICE 21/tcp closed ftp 22/tcp open ssh 23/tcp closed telnet 25/tcp closed smtp 80/tcp open http 110/tcp closed pop3 139/tcp closed netbios-ssn 443/tcp closed https 445/tcp closed microsoft-ds 3389/tcp closed ms-term-serv MAC Address: BC:AE:C5:C3:16:93 (Unknown) Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.51 seconds
THE FASTEST WAY TO SCAN ALL YOUR DEVICES/COMPUTERS FOR OPEN PORTS EVER
nmap -T5 192.168.1.0/24
HOW DO I DETECT REMOTE OPERATING SYSTEM?
You can identify a remote host apps and OS using the -O option:
nmap -O 192.168.1.1 nmap -O --osscan-guess 192.168.1.1 nmap -v -O --osscan-guess 192.168.1.1
Starting Nmap 5.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-11-27 01:29 IST NSE: Loaded 0 scripts for scanning. Initiating ARP Ping Scan at 01:29 Scanning 192.168.1.1 [1 port] Completed ARP Ping Scan at 01:29, 0.01s elapsed (1 total hosts) Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 01:29 Completed Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 01:29, 0.22s elapsed Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 01:29 Scanning 192.168.1.1 [1000 ports] Discovered open port 80/tcp on 192.168.1.1 Discovered open port 22/tcp on 192.168.1.1 Completed SYN Stealth Scan at 01:29, 0.16s elapsed (1000 total ports) Initiating OS detection (try #1) against 192.168.1.1 Retrying OS detection (try #2) against 192.168.1.1 Retrying OS detection (try #3) against 192.168.1.1 Retrying OS detection (try #4) against 192.168.1.1 Retrying OS detection (try #5) against 192.168.1.1 Host 192.168.1.1 is up (0.00049s latency). Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1: Not shown: 998 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE 22/tcp open ssh 80/tcp open http MAC Address: BC:AE:C5:C3:16:93 (Unknown) Device type: WAP|general purpose|router|printer|broadband router Running (JUST GUESSING) : Linksys Linux 2.4.X (95%), Linux 2.4.X|2.6.X (94%), MikroTik RouterOS 3.X (92%), Lexmark embedded (90%), Enterasys embedded (89%), D-Link Linux 2.4.X (89%), Netgear Linux 2.4.X (89%) Aggressive OS guesses: OpenWrt White Russian 0.9 (Linux 2.4.30) (95%), OpenWrt 0.9 - 7.09 (Linux 2.4.30 - 2.4.34) (94%), OpenWrt Kamikaze 7.09 (Linux 2.6.22) (94%), Linux 2.4.21 - 2.4.31 (likely embedded) (92%), Linux 2.6.15 - 2.6.23 (embedded) (92%), Linux 2.6.15 - 2.6.24 (92%), MikroTik RouterOS 3.0beta5 (92%), MikroTik RouterOS 3.17 (92%), Linux 2.6.24 (91%), Linux 2.6.22 (90%) No exact OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see http://nmap.org/submit/ ). TCP/IP fingerprint: OS:SCAN(V=5.00%D=11/27%OT=22%CT=1%CU=30609%PV=Y%DS=1%G=Y%M=BCAEC5%TM=50B3CA OS:4B%P=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=C8%GCD=1%ISR=CB%TI=Z%CI=Z%II=I%TS=7 OS:)OPS(O1=M2300ST11NW2%O2=M2300ST11NW2%O3=M2300NNT11NW2%O4=M2300ST11NW2%O5 OS:=M2300ST11NW2%O6=M2300ST11)WIN(W1=45E8%W2=45E8%W3=45E8%W4=45E8%W5=45E8%W OS:6=45E8)ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=4600%O=M2300NNSNW2%CC=N%Q=)T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%S OS:=O%A=S+%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)T2(R=N)T3(R=N)T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%R OS:D=0%Q=)T5(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W= OS:0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T7(R=N)U1(R=Y%DF=N%T=40%IPL=164%UN=0%RIPL=G%RID OS:=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)IE(R=Y%DFI=N%T=40%CD=S) Uptime guess: 12.990 days (since Wed Nov 14 01:44:40 2012) Network Distance: 1 hop TCP Sequence Prediction: Difficulty=200 (Good luck!) IP ID Sequence Generation: All zeros Read data files from: /usr/share/nmap OS detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at http://nmap.org/submit/ . Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 12.38 seconds Raw packets sent: 1126 (53.832KB) | Rcvd: 1066 (46.100KB)
HOW DO I DETECT REMOTE SERVICES (SERVER / DAEMON) VERSION NUMBERS?
nmap -sV 192.168.1.1
Starting Nmap 5.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-11-27 01:34 IST Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1: Not shown: 998 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 22/tcp open ssh Dropbear sshd 0.52 (protocol 2.0) 80/tcp open http? 1 service unrecognized despite returning data.
SCAN A HOST USING TCP ACK (PA) AND TCP SYN (PS) PING
If firewall is blocking standard ICMP pings, try the following host discovery methods:
nmap -PS 192.168.1.1 nmap -PS 80,21,443 192.168.1.1 nmap -PA 192.168.1.1 nmap -PA 80,21,200-512 192.168.1.1
SCAN A HOST USING IP PROTOCOL PING
nmap -PO 192.168.1.1
SCAN A HOST USING UDP PING
This scan bypasses firewalls and filters that only screen TCP:
nmap -PU 192.168.1.1 nmap -PU 2000.2001 192.168.1.1
FIND OUT THE MOST COMMONLY USED TCP PORTS USING TCP SYN SCAN
# Stealthy scan nmap -sS 192.168.1.1 # Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP connect scan (warning: no stealth scan) # OS Fingerprinting nmap -sT 192.168.1.1 # Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP ACK scan nmap -sA 192.168.1.1 # Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP Window scan nmap -sW 192.168.1.1 # Find out the most commonly used TCP ports using TCP Maimon scan nmap -sM 192.168.1.1
SCAN A HOST FOR UDP SERVICES (UDP SCAN)
Most popular services on the Internet run over the TCP protocol. DNS, SNMP, and DHCP are three of the most common UDP services. Use the following syntax to find out UDP services:
nmap -sU nas03 nmap -sU 192.168.1.1
Starting Nmap 5.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-11-27 00:52 IST Stats: 0:05:29 elapsed; 0 hosts completed (1 up), 1 undergoing UDP Scan UDP Scan Timing: About 32.49% done; ETC: 01:09 (0:11:26 remaining) Interesting ports on nas03 (192.168.1.12): Not shown: 995 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE 111/udp open|filtered rpcbind 123/udp open|filtered ntp 161/udp open|filtered snmp 2049/udp open|filtered nfs 5353/udp open|filtered zeroconf MAC Address: 00:11:32:11:15:FC (Synology Incorporated) Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 1099.55 seconds
SCAN FOR IP PROTOCOL
This type of scan allows you to determine which IP protocols (TCP, ICMP, IGMP, etc.) are supported by target machines:
nmap -sO 192.168.1.1
SCAN A FIREWALL FOR SECURITY WEAKNESS
The following scan types exploit a subtle loophole in the TCP and good for testing security of common attacks:
# TCP Null Scan to fool a firewall to generate a response # Does not set any bits (TCP flag header is 0) nmap -sN 192.168.1.254 # TCP Fin scan to check firewall # Sets just the TCP FIN bit nmap -sF 192.168.1.254 # TCP Xmas scan to check firewall # Sets the FIN, PSH, and URG flags, lighting the packet up like a Christmas tree nmap -sX 192.168.1.254
SCAN A FIREWALL FOR PACKETS FRAGMENTS
The -f option causes the requested scan (including ping scans) to use tiny fragmented IP packets. The idea is to split up the TCP header over several packets to make it harder for packet filters, intrusion detection systems, and other annoyances to detect what you are doing.
nmap -f 192.168.1.1 nmap -f fw2.nixcraft.net.in nmap -f 15 fw2.nixcraft.net.in # Set your own offset size with the --mtu option nmap --mtu 32 192.168.1.1
CLOAK A SCAN WITH DECOYS
The -D option it appear to the remote host that the host(s) you specify as decoys are scanning the target network too. Thus their IDS might report 5-10 port scans from unique IP addresses, but they won’t know which IP was scanning them and which were innocent decoys:
nmap -n -Ddecoy-ip1,decoy-ip2,your-own-ip,decoy-ip3,decoy-ip4 remote-host-ip nmap -n -D192.168.1.5,10.5.1.2,22.214.171.124,126.96.36.199 192.168.1.5
SCAN A FIREWALL FOR MAC ADDRESS SPOOFING
# Spoof your MAC address nmap --spoof-mac MAC-ADDRESS-HERE 192.168.1.1 # Add other options nmap -v -sT -PN --spoof-mac MAC-ADDRESS-HERE 192.168.1.1 # Use a random MAC address # The number 0, means nmap chooses a completely random MAC address nmap -v -sT -PN --spoof-mac 0 192.168.1.1
HOW DO I SAVE OUTPUT TO A TEXT FILE?
nmap 192.168.1.1 > output.txt nmap -oN /path/to/filename 192.168.1.1 nmap -oN output.txt 192.168.1.1
SCANS FOR WEB SERVERS AND PIPES INTO NIKTO FOR SCANNING
nmap -p80 192.168.1.2/24 -oG - | /path/to/nikto.pl -h - nmap -p80,443 192.168.1.2/24 -oG - | /path/to/nikto.pl -h -
SPEED UP NMAP
Pass the -T option:
nmap -v -sS -A -T4 192.168.2.5
Starting Nmap 7.40 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2017-05-15 01:52 IST NSE: Loaded 143 scripts for scanning. NSE: Script Pre-scanning. Initiating NSE at 01:52 Completed NSE at 01:52, 0.00s elapsed Initiating NSE at 01:52 Completed NSE at 01:52, 0.00s elapsed Initiating ARP Ping Scan at 01:52 Scanning 192.168.2.15 [1 port] Completed ARP Ping Scan at 01:52, 0.01s elapsed (1 total hosts) Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 01:52 Scanning dellm6700 (192.168.2.15) [1000 ports] Discovered open port 5900/tcp on 192.168.2.15 Discovered open port 80/tcp on 192.168.2.15 Discovered open port 22/tcp on 192.168.2.15 Completed SYN Stealth Scan at 01:53, 4.62s elapsed (1000 total ports) Initiating Service scan at 01:53 Scanning 3 services on dellm6700 (192.168.2.15) Completed Service scan at 01:53, 6.01s elapsed (3 services on 1 host) Initiating OS detection (try #1) against dellm6700 (192.168.2.15) Retrying OS detection (try #2) against dellm6700 (192.168.2.15) NSE: Script scanning 192.168.2.15. Initiating NSE at 01:53 Completed NSE at 01:53, 30.02s elapsed Initiating NSE at 01:53 Completed NSE at 01:53, 0.00s elapsed Nmap scan report for dellm6700 (192.168.2.15) Host is up (0.00044s latency). Not shown: 996 filtered ports PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 22/tcp open ssh (protocol 2.0) | fingerprint-strings: | NULL: |_ SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.4p1 Ubuntu-10 | ssh-hostkey: | 2048 1d:14:84:f0:c7:21:10:0e:30:d9:f9:59:6b:c3:95:97 (RSA) |_ 256 dc:59:c6:6e:33:33:f2:d2:5d:9b:fd:b4:9c:52:c1:0a (ECDSA) 80/tcp open http nginx 1.10.0 (Ubuntu) | http-methods: |_ Supported Methods: GET HEAD |_http-server-header: nginx/1.10.0 (Ubuntu) |_http-title: Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works 443/tcp closed https 5900/tcp open vnc VNC (protocol 3.7) 1 service unrecognized despite returning data. If you know the service/version, please submit the following fingerprint at https://nmap.org/cgi-bin/submit.cgi?new-service : SF-Port22-TCP:V=7.40%I=7%D=5/15%Time=5918BCAA%P=x86_64-apple-darwin16.3.0% SF:r(NULL,20,"SSH-2\.0-OpenSSH_7\.4p1\x20Ubuntu-10\n"); MAC Address: F0:1F:AF:1F:2C:60 (Dell) Device type: general purpose Running (JUST GUESSING): Linux 3.X|4.X|2.6.X (95%), OpenBSD 4.X (85%) OS CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel:3 cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel:4 cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel:2.6.32 cpe:/o:openbsd:openbsd:4.0 Aggressive OS guesses: Linux 3.11 - 4.1 (95%), Linux 4.4 (95%), Linux 3.13 (92%), Linux 4.0 (90%), Linux 2.6.32 (89%), Linux 2.6.32 or 3.10 (89%), Linux 3.2 - 3.8 (89%), Linux 3.10 - 3.12 (88%), Linux 2.6.32 - 2.6.33 (87%), Linux 2.6.32 - 2.6.35 (87%) No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal). Uptime guess: 0.000 days (since Mon May 15 01:53:08 2017) Network Distance: 1 hop TCP Sequence Prediction: Difficulty=252 (Good luck!) IP ID Sequence Generation: All zeros Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel TRACEROUTE HOP RTT ADDRESS 1 0.44 ms dellm6700 (192.168.2.15) NSE: Script Post-scanning. Initiating NSE at 01:53 Completed NSE at 01:53, 0.00s elapsed Initiating NSE at 01:53 Completed NSE at 01:53, 0.00s elapsed Read data files from: /usr/local/bin/../share/nmap OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ . Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 46.02 seconds Raw packets sent: 2075 (95.016KB) | Rcvd: 50 (3.084KB)
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